Several aspects of privateering, which left such an indelible mark, should be mentioned here. It was an activity that required specially-adapted ships and a specialised workforce, and it spontaneously appeared in those ports – including Dunkirk, Granville, Saint-Malo and Morlaix – where naval conflict had grounded the large vessels and vast crews that had traditionally been employed in deep-sea fishing. Clearly, in times of war, commerce raiding became a substitute for peacetime fishing activities in Iceland and Newfoundland.