- Loupian, a villa in Gallia Narbonensis
- Wine-growing villas in the Early Roman Empire
Several generations after its creation, the estate took on the appearance of a villa. A residential wing was built that featured the same level of comfort as urban dwellings, and commercial wine-growing began. Planted surfaces, wine-making equipment and the creation of amphorae all confirm the speculative nature of this production, which became the dominant activity of a farming establishment that had previously focused on a mix of crops.